Agnosticism means “unknowable,” and is the philosophical view that the truth value of certain claims – particularly theological claims regarding metaphysics, afterlife or the existence of God, god(s), or deities – is unknown or, depending on the form of agnosticism, inherently unknowable.

In its most general sense, the term Animism refers to belief in souls: in this sense, animism is present in nearly all religions, including religions such as Christianity that see souls as distinct from bodies and as limited to humans. In a more restrictive sense, animism refers to belief systems that, unlike Christianity, attribute personalized souls to animals, plants, and other material objects, governing, to some degree, their existence.

Atheism, defined as a philosophical view, is the position that either affirms the nonexistence of gods or rejects theism. In its broadest definition, atheism is the absence of belief in deities, sometimes called nontheism. Although atheists are commonly assumed to be irreligious, some religions, such as Buddhism, have been characterized as atheistic.

Dystheism is the belief that God does exist but is not wholly good, or that he might even be evil. The opposite concept is eutheism, the belief that God exists and is good.

Henotheism is a term coined by Max Müller, to mean devotion to a single “God” while accepting the existence of other gods. Müller stated that henotheism means “monotheism in principle and a polytheism in fact.”

Monism is the metaphysical and theological view that all is one, that there are no fundamental divisions and a unified set of laws underlie nature. Monism is to be distinguished from dualism, which holds that ultimately there are two kinds of substance, and from pluralism, which holds that ultimately there are many kinds of substance.

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