Theisms

Agnosticism means “unknowable,” and is the philosophical view that the truth value of certain claims – particularly theological claims regarding metaphysics, afterlife or the existence of God, god(s), or deities – is unknown or, depending on the form of agnosticism, inherently unknowable.

In its most general sense, the term Animism refers to belief in souls: in this sense, animism is present in nearly all religions, including religions such as Christianity that see souls as distinct from bodies and as limited to humans. In a more restrictive sense, animism refers to belief systems that, unlike Christianity, attribute personalized souls to animals, plants, and other material objects, governing, to some degree, their existence.

Atheism, defined as a philosophical view, is the position that either affirms the nonexistence of gods or rejects theism. In its broadest definition, atheism is the absence of belief in deities, sometimes called nontheism. Although atheists are commonly assumed to be irreligious, some religions, such as Buddhism, have been characterized as atheistic.

Dystheism is the belief that God does exist but is not wholly good, or that he might even be evil. The opposite concept is eutheism, the belief that God exists and is good.

Henotheism is a term coined by Max Müller, to mean devotion to a single “God” while accepting the existence of other gods. Müller stated that henotheism means “monotheism in principle and a polytheism in fact.”

Monism is the metaphysical and theological view that all is one, that there are no fundamental divisions and a unified set of laws underlie nature. Monism is to be distinguished from dualism, which holds that ultimately there are two kinds of substance, and from pluralism, which holds that ultimately there are many kinds of substance.

In theology, monotheism is the belief in the existence of one deity or God, or in the oneness of God. In a Western context, the concept of “monotheism” tends to be dominated by the concept of the God of the Abrahamic religions and the Platonic concept of God as put forward by Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite.

Panentheism is the theological position that God is immanent within the Universe, but also transcends it. It is distinguished from pantheism, which holds that God is synonymous with the material universe. In panentheism, God is viewed as creator and/or animating force behind the universe, and the source of universal morality. The term is closely associated with the Logos of Greek philosophy in the works of Herakleitos, which pervades the cosmos and whereby all things were made.

Pantheism literally means “God is All” and “All is God”. It is the view that everything is of an all-encompassing immanent abstract God; or that the universe, or nature, and God are equivalent. More detailed definitions tend to emphasize the idea that natural law, existence, and the universe (the sum total of all that is, was, and shall be) is represented or personified in the theological principle of an abstract ‘god’.

Polytheism is belief in or worship of multiple gods or deities. The word comes from the Greek words poly theoi, literally “many gods.” Ancient Greek and Roman religions were polytheistic, holding to a pantheon of traditional deities. The belief in many gods does not necessarily preclude the belief in an all-powerful all-knowing supreme being, as the ruler and parent (often king and fathers) of gods and mankind.

Theism is the belief in the existence of one or more gods or deities. There is also a narrower sense in which theism refers to the belief that one or more gods are immanent in the world, yet transcend it, along with the idea that God(s) is/are omniscient, omnipotent and omnipresent.

Main definitions from Wikipedia, minor definitions from Answers.com.

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1 thought on “Theisms

  1. A WHOLE LOT OF ISMS

    THEISM – the belief that at least one deity exists
    LIBERAL THEISM – belief that at least one deity exists, without adhering to an established religion
    CLASSICAL THEISM – at least one deity exists, who is the absolute metaphysically ultimate being
    OPEN THEISM – belief that at least one deity exists, and is open to influence through prayers, influence and actions of people
    MONOTHEISM – belief in the existence of only one deity
    POLYTHEISM – a belief in the existence of many deities
    HARD POLYTHEISM – a belief in many deities as distinct, separate beings
    SOFT POLYTHEISM – a belief in many deities which not as separate beings but as different faces of one universal force
    HENOTHEISM – belief that there many be more than one deity, but only one is worshipped
    KATHENOTHEISM – the belief that there is more than one deity, but they are worshipped one at a time, as then they are treated as supreme in turn
    MONOLATRISM – the belief that there may be more than one deity, but only one is worthy of being worshipped
    PANTHEISM – the belief that the physical universe is equal to deity, and that deity exists in everything in the universe
    PANENTHEISM – the belief that the physical universe is equal to deity, but that it also extends beyond it (deity is more than just the physical universe)
    DEISM – belief that at least one deity exists and created the world, but does not intervene in human affairs or change natural laws
    CLASSICAL DEISM – the belief that human beings’ relationship with the creator god is impersonal (god will not individually intervene)
    MODERN DEISM – classical deism integrated with modern philosophy and scientific ideas, posits that humans’ relationship with the creator god is transpersonal (god is above the personal/impersonal duality)
    PANDEISM – belief that deity created the universe, but is now equivalent with it
    PANENDEISM – combines deism and panentheism, posits that the universe is part of (but not the whole of) deity
    POLYDEISM – belief that multiple gods exist(ed), but they do not intervene with the universe
    AUTOTHEISM or EGOTHEISM – divinity is inherently within oneself and one has a duty to become perfect/divine, can encompass self-worship
    HEDONISM – belief that pleasure or happiness is the highest good, a devotion to maintaining personal pleasure
    EUTHEISM – belief that deity is wholly benevolent
    DYSTHEISM – belief that deity is not wholly good, and is possibly evil
    MALTHEISM – the belief that a deity exists, but it is wholly malicious
    MISOTHEISM – not a lack of belief in deity, but a hatred of any and all deities that might exist
    ANIMISM – belief that non-human entities are spiritual beings, or contain some kind of life-principal
    DITHEISM or DUOTHEISM – the belief that two deities exist and they are equal (e.g. the Lord and Lady in Wicca)
    ATHEISM – the lack of belief in any deity
    AGNOSTICISM – the belief that it is unknown or unknowable whether or not deity exists (can be combined with other terms, e.g. “agnostic atheist” – belief that it is unknown or unknowable whether deity exists, and encompasses lack of belief in any deity)
    GNOSTICISM – the belief that it is possible to know whether or not deity exists (can be combined with other terms, e.g. “gnostic theist” – the belief in the existence of at least one deity, and the belief that it is possible to know for certain whether this deity exists)

    EDIT: Adding, thanks to beyond-the-wand!

    PANAPATHEISM – belief that multiple gods exist, but you don’t care to worship any of them
    ATHEOGENECISM – belief that god/s did not create the universe or world, though it doesn’t necessarily mean that they don’t exist.

    http://inshekina.tumblr.com/post/19089070400/a-whole-lot-of-isms

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