Agnosticism means “unknowable,” and is the philosophical view that the truth value of certain claims – particularly theological claims regarding metaphysics, afterlife or the existence of God, god(s), or deities – is unknown or, depending on the form of agnosticism, inherently unknowable.
In its most general sense, the term Animism refers to belief in souls: in this sense, animism is present in nearly all religions, including religions such as Christianity that see souls as distinct from bodies and as limited to humans. In a more restrictive sense, animism refers to belief systems that, unlike Christianity, attribute personalized souls to animals, plants, and other material objects, governing, to some degree, their existence.
Atheism, defined as a philosophical view, is the position that either affirms the nonexistence of gods or rejects theism. In its broadest definition, atheism is the absence of belief in deities, sometimes called nontheism. Although atheists are commonly assumed to be irreligious, some religions, such as Buddhism, have been characterized as atheistic.
Dystheism is the belief that God does exist but is not wholly good, or that he might even be evil. The opposite concept is eutheism, the belief that God exists and is good.
Henotheism is a term coined by Max Müller, to mean devotion to a single “God” while accepting the existence of other gods. Müller stated that henotheism means “monotheism in principle and a polytheism in fact.”
Monism is the metaphysical and theological view that all is one, that there are no fundamental divisions and a unified set of laws underlie nature. Monism is to be distinguished from dualism, which holds that ultimately there are two kinds of substance, and from pluralism, which holds that ultimately there are many kinds of substance.
In theology, monotheism is the belief in the existence of one deity or God, or in the oneness of God. In a Western context, the concept of “monotheism” tends to be dominated by the concept of the God of the Abrahamic religions and the Platonic concept of God as put forward by Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite.
Panentheism is the theological position that God is immanent within the Universe, but also transcends it. It is distinguished from pantheism, which holds that God is synonymous with the material universe. In panentheism, God is viewed as creator and/or animating force behind the universe, and the source of universal morality. The term is closely associated with the Logos of Greek philosophy in the works of Herakleitos, which pervades the cosmos and whereby all things were made.
Pantheism literally means “God is All” and “All is God”. It is the view that everything is of an all-encompassing immanent abstract God; or that the universe, or nature, and God are equivalent. More detailed definitions tend to emphasize the idea that natural law, existence, and the universe (the sum total of all that is, was, and shall be) is represented or personified in the theological principle of an abstract ‘god’.
Polytheism is belief in or worship of multiple gods or deities. The word comes from the Greek words poly theoi, literally “many gods.” Ancient Greek and Roman religions were polytheistic, holding to a pantheon of traditional deities. The belief in many gods does not necessarily preclude the belief in an all-powerful all-knowing supreme being, as the ruler and parent (often king and fathers) of gods and mankind.
Theism is the belief in the existence of one or more gods or deities. There is also a narrower sense in which theism refers to the belief that one or more gods are immanent in the world, yet transcend it, along with the idea that God(s) is/are omniscient, omnipotent and omnipresent.